Source code for grab.document

# Copyright: 2013, Grigoriy Petukhov
# Author: Grigoriy Petukhov (
# License: MIT
The Document class is the result of network request made with Grab instance.
# FIXME: split to modules, make smaller
# pylint: disable=too-many-lines
import weakref
import re
from copy import copy
import email
import os
import json
import tempfile
import webbrowser
import codecs
from datetime import datetime
import time
import threading
import logging

from lxml.html import HTMLParser
from lxml.etree import XMLParser, ParserError
import six
from six.moves.urllib.parse import urlsplit, parse_qs, urljoin
from six import BytesIO, StringIO
from weblib.http import smart_urlencode
import weblib.encoding
from weblib.files import hashed_path
from weblib.structured import TreeInterface
from weblib.text import normalize_space
from weblib.html import decode_entities, find_refresh_url
from weblib.rex import normalize_regexp
import defusedxml.lxml
from selection import XpathSelector

from grab.cookie import CookieManager
from grab.error import GrabMisuseError, DataNotFound
from grab.const import NULL
from grab.util.warning import warn

NULL_BYTE = chr(0)
RE_XML_DECLARATION = re.compile(br'^[^<]{,100}<\?xml[^>]+\?>', re.I)
RE_DECLARATION_ENCODING = re.compile(br'encoding\s*=\s*["\']([^"\']+)["\']')
    re.compile(br'<meta[^>]+content\s*=\s*[^>]+charset=([-\w]+)', re.I)
    re.compile(br'<meta[^>]+charset\s*=\s*[\'"]?([-\w]+)', re.I)
    re.compile(RE_XML_DECLARATION.pattern.decode('utf-8'), re.I)

# Bom processing logic was copied from
    (codecs.BOM_UTF32_BE, 'utf-32-be'),
    (codecs.BOM_UTF32_LE, 'utf-32-le'),
    (codecs.BOM_UTF16_BE, 'utf-16-be'),
    (codecs.BOM_UTF16_LE, 'utf-16-le'),
    (codecs.BOM_UTF8, 'utf-8')
_FIRST_CHARS = set(char[0] for (char, name) in _BOM_TABLE)
THREAD_STORAGE = threading.local()
logger = logging.getLogger('grab.document') # pylint: disable=invalid-name

[docs]def read_bom(data): """Read the byte order mark in the text, if present, and return the encoding represented by the BOM and the BOM. If no BOM can be detected, (None, None) is returned. """ # common case is no BOM, so this is fast if data and data[0] in _FIRST_CHARS: for bom, encoding in _BOM_TABLE: if data.startswith(bom): return encoding, bom return None, None
[docs]class Document(object): """ Document (in most cases it is a network response i.e. result of network request) """ __slots__ = ( 'status', 'code', 'head', '_bytes_body', 'body_path', 'headers', 'url', 'cookies', 'charset', '_unicode_body', 'bom', 'timestamp', 'name_lookup_time', 'connect_time', 'total_time', 'download_size', 'upload_size', 'download_speed', 'error_code', 'error_msg', 'grab', 'remote_ip', '_lxml_tree', '_strict_lxml_tree', '_pyquery', '_lxml_form', '_file_fields', 'from_cache', ) def __init__(self, grab=None): if grab is None: self.grab = None else: if isinstance(grab, weakref.ProxyType): self.grab = grab else: self.grab = weakref.proxy(grab) self.status = None self.code = None self.head = None self.headers = None self.url = None self.cookies = CookieManager() self.charset = 'utf-8' = None self.timestamp = datetime.utcnow() self.name_lookup_time = 0 self.connect_time = 0 self.total_time = 0 self.download_size = 0 self.upload_size = 0 self.download_speed = 0 self.error_code = None self.error_msg = None self.from_cache = False # Body self.body_path = None self._bytes_body = None self._unicode_body = None # DOM Tree self._lxml_tree = None self._strict_lxml_tree = None # Pyquery self._pyquery = None # Form self._lxml_form = None self._file_fields = {} def __call__(self, query): return def select(self, *args, **kwargs): return XpathSelector(self.tree).select(*args, **kwargs) def structure(self, *args, **kwargs): return TreeInterface(self.tree).structured_xpath(*args, **kwargs)
[docs] def parse(self, charset=None, headers=None): """ Parse headers. This method is called after Grab instance performs network request. """ if headers: self.headers = headers else: # Parse headers only from last response # There could be multiple responses in `self.head` # in case of 301/302 redirect # Separate responses if self.head: responses = self.head.rsplit(b'\nHTTP/', 1) # Cut off the 'HTTP/*' line from the last response _, response = responses[-1].split(b'\n', 1) response = response.decode('ascii', 'ignore') else: response = '' self.headers = email.message_from_string(response) if charset is None: if isinstance(self.body, six.text_type): self.charset = 'utf-8' else: self.detect_charset() else: self.charset = charset.lower() self._unicode_body = None
[docs] def detect_charset(self): """ Detect charset of the response. Try following methods: * meta[name="Http-Equiv"] * XML declaration * HTTP Content-Type header Ignore unknown charsets. Use utf-8 as fallback charset. """ charset = None body_chunk = self.get_body_chunk() if body_chunk: # Try to extract charset from http-equiv meta tag match_charset = if match_charset: charset = else: match_charset_html5 = if match_charset_html5: charset = # TODO: <meta charset="utf-8" /> bom_enc, bom = read_bom(body_chunk) if bom_enc: charset = bom_enc = bom # Try to process XML declaration if not charset: if body_chunk.startswith(b'<?xml'): match = if match: enc_match = if enc_match: charset = if not charset: if 'Content-Type' in self.headers: pos = self.headers['Content-Type'].find('charset=') if pos > -1: charset = self.headers['Content-Type'][(pos + 8):] if charset: charset = charset.lower() if not isinstance(charset, str): # Convert to unicode (py2.x) or string (py3.x) charset = charset.decode('utf-8') # Check that python knows such charset try: codecs.lookup(charset) except LookupError: logger.error('Unknown charset found: %s.' ' Using utf-8 istead.', charset) self.charset = 'utf-8' else: self.charset = charset
[docs] def copy(self, new_grab=None): """ Clone the Response object. """ if new_grab is not None: obj = self.__class__(self.grab) # Response() else: obj = self.__class__(new_grab) copy_keys = ('status', 'code', 'head', 'body', 'total_time', 'connect_time', 'name_lookup_time', 'url', 'charset', '_unicode_body') for key in copy_keys: setattr(obj, key, getattr(self, key)) obj.headers = copy(self.headers) # TODO: Maybe, deepcopy? obj.cookies = copy(self.cookies) return obj
[docs] def save(self, path): """ Save response body to file. """ path_dir = os.path.split(path)[0] if not os.path.exists(path_dir): try: os.makedirs(path_dir) except OSError: pass with open(path, 'wb') as out: out.write(self._bytes_body if self._bytes_body is not None else b'')
[docs] def save_hash(self, location, basedir, ext=None): """ Save response body into file with special path builded from hash. That allows to lower number of files per directory. :param location: URL of file or something else. It is used to build the SHA1 hash. :param basedir: base directory to save the file. Note that file will not be saved directly to this directory but to some sub-directory of `basedir` :param ext: extension which should be appended to file name. The dot is inserted automatically between filename and extension. :returns: path to saved file relative to `basedir` Example:: >>> url = '' >>> g.go(url) >>> g.response.save_hash(url, 'some_dir', ext='png') 'e8/dc/f2918108788296df1facadc975d32b361a6a.png' # the file was saved to $PWD/some_dir/e8/dc/... TODO: replace `basedir` with two options: root and save_to. And returns save_to + path """ if isinstance(location, six.text_type): location = location.encode('utf-8') rel_path = hashed_path(location, ext=ext) path = os.path.join(basedir, rel_path) if not os.path.exists(path): path_dir, _ = os.path.split(path) try: os.makedirs(path_dir) except OSError: pass with open(path, 'wb') as out: out.write(self._bytes_body) return rel_path
@property def json(self): """ Return response body deserialized into JSON object. """ if six.PY3: return json.loads(self.body.decode(self.charset)) else: return json.loads(self.body)
[docs] def url_details(self): """ Return result of urlsplit function applied to response url. """ return urlsplit(self.url)
[docs] def query_param(self, key): """ Return value of parameter in query string. """ return parse_qs(self.url_details().query)[key][0]
[docs] def browse(self): """ Save response in temporary file and open it in GUI browser. """ _, path = tempfile.mkstemp()'file://' + path)
@property def time(self): warn('Attribute `Document.time` is deprecated. ' 'Use `Document.total_time` instead.') return self.total_time def __getstate__(self): """ Reset cached lxml objects which could not be pickled. """ state = {} for cls in type(self).mro(): cls_slots = getattr(cls, '__slots__', ()) for slot in cls_slots: if slot != '__weakref__': if hasattr(self, slot): state[slot] = getattr(self, slot) state['_lxml_tree'] = None state['_strict_lxml_tree'] = None state['_lxml_form'] = None return state def __setstate__(self, state): for slot, value in state.items(): setattr(self, slot, value) def get_meta_refresh_url(self): return find_refresh_url(self.unicode_body()) # TextExtension methods
[docs] def text_assert(self, anchor, byte=False): """ If `anchor` is not found then raise `DataNotFound` exception. """ if not self.text_search(anchor, byte=byte): raise DataNotFound(u'Substring not found: %s' % anchor)
[docs] def text_assert_any(self, anchors, byte=False): """ If no `anchors` were found then raise `DataNotFound` exception. """ found = False for anchor in anchors: if self.text_search(anchor, byte=byte): found = True break if not found: raise DataNotFound(u'Substrings not found: %s' % ', '.join(anchors))
# RegexpExtension methods
[docs] def rex_text(self, regexp, flags=0, byte=False, default=NULL): """ Search regular expression in response body and return content of first matching group. :param byte: if False then search is performed in `response.unicode_body()` else the rex is searched in `response.body`. """ # pylint: disable=no-member try: match = self.rex_search(regexp, flags=flags, byte=byte) except DataNotFound: if default is NULL: raise DataNotFound('Regexp not found') else: return default else: return normalize_space(decode_entities(
[docs] def rex_assert(self, rex, byte=False): """ If `rex` expression is not found then raise `DataNotFound` exception. """ self.rex_search(rex, byte=byte)
# PyqueryExtension methods @property def pyquery(self): """ Returns pyquery handler. """ if not self._pyquery: from pyquery import PyQuery self._pyquery = PyQuery(self.body) return self._pyquery # BodyExtension methods def get_body_chunk(self): body_chunk = None if self.body_path: with open(self.body_path, 'rb') as inp: body_chunk = elif self._bytes_body: body_chunk = self._bytes_body[:4096] return body_chunk def convert_body_to_unicode(self, body, bom, charset, ignore_errors, fix_special_entities): # How could it be unicode??? # if isinstance(body, unicode): # body = body.encode('utf-8') if bom: body = body[len(] if fix_special_entities: body = weblib.encoding.fix_special_entities(body) if ignore_errors: errors = 'ignore' else: errors = 'strict' return body.decode(charset, errors).strip() def read_body_from_file(self): with open(self.body_path, 'rb') as inp: return
[docs] def unicode_body(self, ignore_errors=True, fix_special_entities=True): """ Return response body as unicode string. """ if not self._unicode_body: self._unicode_body = self.convert_body_to_unicode( body=self.body,, charset=self.charset, ignore_errors=ignore_errors, fix_special_entities=fix_special_entities, ) return self._unicode_body
def _read_body(self): if self.body_path: return self.read_body_from_file() else: return self._bytes_body def _write_body(self, body): if isinstance(body, six.text_type): raise GrabMisuseError('Document.body could be only byte string.') elif self.body_path: with open(self.body_path, 'wb') as out: out.write(body) self._bytes_body = None else: self._bytes_body = body self._unicode_body = None body = property(_read_body, _write_body) # DomTreeExtension methods @property def tree(self): """ Return DOM tree of the document built with HTML DOM builder. """ if self.grab.config['content_type'] == 'xml': return self.build_xml_tree() else: return self.build_html_tree() @classmethod def _build_dom(cls, content, mode): assert mode in ('html', 'xml') if mode == 'html': if not hasattr(THREAD_STORAGE, 'html_parser'): THREAD_STORAGE.html_parser = HTMLParser() dom = defusedxml.lxml.parse(StringIO(content), parser=THREAD_STORAGE.html_parser) return dom.getroot() else: if not hasattr(THREAD_STORAGE, 'xml_parser'): THREAD_STORAGE.xml_parser = XMLParser() dom = defusedxml.lxml.parse(BytesIO(content), parser=THREAD_STORAGE.xml_parser) return dom.getroot() def build_html_tree(self): from grab.base import GLOBAL_STATE if self._lxml_tree is None: fix_setting = self.grab.config['fix_special_entities'] body = self.unicode_body(fix_special_entities=fix_setting).strip() if self.grab.config['lowercased_tree']: body = body.lower() if self.grab.config['strip_null_bytes']: body = body.replace(NULL_BYTE, '') # py3 hack if six.PY3: body = RE_UNICODE_XML_DECLARATION.sub('', body) else: body = RE_XML_DECLARATION.sub('', body) if not body: # Generate minimal empty content # which will not break lxml parser body = '<html></html>' start = time.time() try: self._lxml_tree = self._build_dom(body, 'html') except Exception as ex: # pylint: disable=broad-except # FIXME: write test for this case if (isinstance(ex, ParserError) and 'Document is empty' in str(ex) and '<html' not in body): # Fix for "just a string" body body = '<html>%s</html>' % body self._lxml_tree = self._build_dom(body, 'html') # FIXME: write test for this case elif (isinstance(ex, TypeError) and "object of type 'NoneType' has no len" in str(ex) and '<html' not in body): # Fix for smth like "<frameset></frameset>" body = '<html>%s</html>' % body self._lxml_tree = self._build_dom(body, 'html') else: raise GLOBAL_STATE['dom_build_time'] += (time.time() - start) return self._lxml_tree @property def xml_tree(self): """ Return DOM-tree of the document built with XML DOM builder. """ warn('Attribute `grab.xml_tree` is deprecated. ' 'Use `Grab.doc.tree` attribute ' 'AND content_type="xml" option instead.') return self.build_xml_tree() def build_xml_tree(self): if self._strict_lxml_tree is None: self._strict_lxml_tree = self._build_dom(self.body, 'xml') return self._strict_lxml_tree # FormExtension methods
[docs] def choose_form(self, number=None, xpath=None, name=None, **kwargs): """ Set the default form. :param number: number of form (starting from zero) :param id: value of "id" attribute :param name: value of "name" attribute :param xpath: XPath query :raises: :class:`DataNotFound` if form not found :raises: :class:`GrabMisuseError` if method is called without parameters Selected form will be available via `form` attribute of `Grab` instance. All form methods will work with default form. Examples:: # Select second form g.choose_form(1) # Select by id g.choose_form(id="register") # Select by name g.choose_form(name="signup") # Select by xpath g.choose_form(xpath='//form[contains(@action, "/submit")]') """ id_ = kwargs.pop('id', None) if id_ is not None: try: self._lxml_form ='//form[@id="%s"]' % id_).node() except IndexError: raise DataNotFound("There is no form with id: %s" % id_) elif name is not None: try: self._lxml_form = '//form[@name="%s"]' % name).node() except IndexError: raise DataNotFound('There is no form with name: %s' % name) elif number is not None: try: self._lxml_form = self.tree.forms[number] except IndexError: raise DataNotFound('There is no form with number: %s' % number) elif xpath is not None: try: self._lxml_form = except IndexError: raise DataNotFound( 'Could not find form with xpath: %s' % xpath) else: raise GrabMisuseError('choose_form methods requires one of ' '[number, id, name, xpath] arguments')
@property def form(self): """ This attribute points to default form. If form was not selected manually then select the form which has the biggest number of input elements. The form value is just an `lxml.html` form element. Example:: g.go('some URL') # Choose form automatically print g.form # And now choose form manually g.choose_form(1) print g.form """ if self._lxml_form is None: forms = [(idx, len(list(x.fields))) for idx, x in enumerate(self.tree.forms)] if forms: idx = sorted(forms, key=lambda x: x[1], reverse=True)[0][0] self.choose_form(idx) else: raise DataNotFound('Response does not contains any form') return self._lxml_form
[docs] def set_input(self, name, value): """ Set the value of form element by its `name` attribute. :param name: name of element :param value: value which should be set to element To check/uncheck the checkbox pass boolean value. Example:: g.set_input('sex', 'male') # Check the checkbox g.set_input('accept', True) """ if self._lxml_form is None: self.choose_form_by_element('.//*[@name="%s"]' % name) elem = self.form.inputs[name] # pylint: disable=no-member processed = False if getattr(elem, 'type', None) == 'checkbox': if isinstance(value, bool): elem.checked = value processed = True if not processed: # We need to remember original values of file fields # Because lxml will convert UploadContent/UploadFile object to # string if getattr(elem, 'type', '').lower() == 'file': self._file_fields[name] = value elem.value = '' else: elem.value = value
[docs] def set_input_by_id(self, _id, value): """ Set the value of form element by its `id` attribute. :param _id: id of element :param value: value which should be set to element """ xpath = './/*[@id="%s"]' % _id if self._lxml_form is None: self.choose_form_by_element(xpath) sel = XpathSelector(self.form) elem = # pylint: disable=no-member return self.set_input(elem.get('name'), value)
[docs] def set_input_by_number(self, number, value): """ Set the value of form element by its number in the form :param number: number of element :param value: value which should be set to element """ sel = XpathSelector(self.form) elem ='.//input[@type="text"]')[number].node() return self.set_input(elem.get('name'), value)
[docs] def set_input_by_xpath(self, xpath, value): """ Set the value of form element by xpath :param xpath: xpath path :param value: value which should be set to element """ elem = if self._lxml_form is None: # Explicitly set the default form # which contains found element parent = elem while True: parent = parent.getparent() # pylint: disable=no-member if parent.tag == 'form': self._lxml_form = parent break # pylint: disable=no-member return self.set_input(elem.get('name'), value)
# FIXME: # * Remove set_input_by_id # * Remove set_input_by_number # * New method: set_input_by(id=None, number=None, xpath=None)
[docs] def submit(self, submit_name=None, make_request=True, url=None, extra_post=None, remove_from_post=None): """ Submit default form. :param submit_name: name of button which should be "clicked" to submit form :param make_request: if `False` then grab instance will be configured with form post data but request will not be performed :param url: explicitly specify form action url :param extra_post: (dict or list of pairs) additional form data which will override data automatically extracted from the form. :param remove_from_post: list of keys to remove from the submitted data Following input elements are automatically processed: * input[type="hidden"] - default value * select: value of last option * radio - ??? * checkbox - ??? Multipart forms are correctly recognized by grab library. Example:: # Assume that we going to some page with some form g.go('some url') # Fill some fields g.set_input('username', 'bob') g.set_input('pwd', '123') # Submit the form g.submit() # or we can just fill the form # and do manual submission g.set_input('foo', 'bar') g.submit(make_request=False) g.request() # for multipart forms we can specify files from grab import UploadFile g.set_input('img', UploadFile('/path/to/image.png')) g.submit() """ # pylint: disable=no-member post = self.form_fields() # Build list of submit buttons which have a name submit_controls = {} for elem in self.form.inputs: if (elem.tag == 'input' and elem.type == 'submit' and elem.get('name') is not None): submit_controls[] = elem # All this code need only for one reason: # to not send multiple submit keys in form data # in real life only this key is submitted whose button # was pressed if submit_controls: # If name of submit control is not given then # use the name of first submit control if submit_name is None or submit_name not in submit_controls: controls = sorted(submit_controls.values(), key=lambda x: submit_name = controls[0].name # Form data should contain only one submit control for name in submit_controls: if name != submit_name: if name in post: del post[name] if url: action_url = urljoin(self.url, url) else: action_url = urljoin(self.url, self.form.action) # Values from `extra_post` should override values in form # `extra_post` allows multiple value of one key # Process saved values of file fields if self.form.method == 'POST': if 'multipart' in self.form.get('enctype', ''): for key, obj in self._file_fields.items(): post[key] = obj post_items = list(post.items()) del post if extra_post: if isinstance(extra_post, dict): extra_post_items = extra_post.items() else: extra_post_items = extra_post # Drop existing post items with such key keys_to_drop = set([x for x, y in extra_post_items]) for key in keys_to_drop: post_items = [(x, y) for x, y in post_items if x != key] for key, value in extra_post_items: post_items.append((key, value)) if remove_from_post: post_items = [(x, y) for x, y in post_items if x not in remove_from_post] if self.form.method == 'POST': if 'multipart' in self.form.get('enctype', ''): self.grab.setup(multipart_post=post_items) else: self.grab.setup(post=post_items) self.grab.setup(url=action_url) else: url = action_url.split('?')[0] + '?' + smart_urlencode(post_items) self.grab.setup(url=url) if make_request: return self.grab.request() else: return None
[docs] def form_fields(self): """ Return fields of default form. Fill some fields with reasonable values. """ fields = dict(self.form.fields) # pylint: disable=no-member for elem in self.form.inputs: # pylint: disable=no-member # Ignore elements without name if not elem.get('name'): continue # Do not submit disabled fields # if elem.get('disabled'): if in fields: del fields[] elif elem.tag == 'select': if fields[] is None: if elem.value_options: fields[] = elem.value_options[0] elif getattr(elem, 'type', None) == 'radio': if fields[] is None: fields[] = elem.get('value') elif getattr(elem, 'type', None) == 'checkbox': if not elem.checked: if is not None: if in fields: del fields[] return fields
def choose_form_by_element(self, xpath): elem = while elem is not None: if elem.tag == 'form': # pylint: disable=no-member self._lxml_form = elem return else: elem = elem.getparent() # pylint: disable=no-member self._lxml_form = None